J. Marvin Herndon's Brief Biography

J. Marvin Herndon (b. 1944) is an American interdisciplinary scientist, who earned his BA degree in physics in 1970 from the University of California, San Diego and his Ph.D. degree in nuclear chemistry in 1974 from Texas A&M University. For three years, J. Marvin Herndon was a post-doctoral apprentice to Hans E. Suess and Harold C. Urey in geochemistry and cosmochemistry at the University of California, San Diego. He is the President and CEO of Transdyne Corporation in San Diego, California.

Profiled in Current Biography, along with Chief Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, William H. Rehnquist, White House chief of staff, Andrew H. Card, Jr., film director and screenwriter, Sofia Coppola and thirteen others (click here), dubbed a “maverick geophysicist” by The Washington Post [The Washington Post, March 24, Page A06], and armed with a unique knowledge of the nature of science and the ways to make important discoveries, passed down through generations of master scientists, J. Marvin Herndon’s professional life, as a technologist and as a scientist, has been a step-by-step logical progression of understanding and discovery, uncovering deep-rooted mistakes in geophysics, in astrophysics, and in science management. The consequence has been discovering the strikingly different nature of the Earth and the Universe, which are described in depth in his book Maverick’s Earth and Universe [Vancouver:Trafford Press, 2008, ISBN: 978-1-4251-4132-5], in scientific publications, in Google Knols, in YouTube videos, and in a series of eBooks.

J. Marvin Herndon is trained both as a physicist and as a chemist, with broad, multi-disciplinary approaches to scientific and industrial challenges and with overview, evaluation, management capability, and experience. He is experienced in directing, managing, and performing basic and applied research, both theoretical and experimental. He is experienced in the management of mineral operations, and in chemistry, metallurgy and process development. He is experienced in plant and process design, construction, trouble-shooting, management and corporate operations, and is familiar with patent application procedures. He has been awarded one U. S. Patent.

Important Scientific Discoveries and Insights in Earth and Planetary Science
= Composition of Earth’s inner core = click here for more information

On the basis of data discovered in the 1960’s, J. Marvin Herndon deduced the composition of the inner core as being fully-crystallized nickel silicide, not partially-crystallized nickel-iron metal as proposed by Francis Birch in 1940. This means that Earth’s deep interior is like an enstatite chondrite meteorite, rather than an ordinary chondrite meteorite as presumed by Birch. One principal implication is that the Earth’s core contains radioactive elements, including uranium, which would otherwise not have been expected [Herndon, J. M. (1979) The nickel silicide inner core of the Earth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A368, 495-500 (click here for pdf)].

= Enstatite chondritic composition of Earth’s lower mantle and core = click here for more information

By fundamental ratios of mass, J. Marvin Herndon showed that the core and lower mantle of the Earth are chemically analogous to the two main components of the Abee enstatite chondrite. This provides evidence that the deep interior of the Earth is indeed like an enstatite chondrite meteorite and it means that one can estimate the abundances of the elements in the Earth’s core and lower mantle from measured abundances in corresponding parts of the Abee meteorite [Herndon, J. M. (1980) The chemical composition of the interior shells of the Earth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A372, 149-154 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2005) Scientific basis of knowledge on Earth's composition. Current Science, 88, 1034-1037 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2011) Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. Current Science, 101, 1440-1450. (click here for pdf)].

= Feasibility of a geocentric nuclear fission georeactor = click here for more information

With an understanding that the Earth’s core contains uranium, J. Marvin Herndon applied Fermi’s nuclear reactor theory to demonstrate the feasibility of a natural nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth, called the georeactor. Unlike other major, natural, Earth energy sources, which might change only gradually, the georeactor is capable of variable energy output including stopping (because of fission product accumulation) and re-starting again (as the light fission products migrate radially outward and uranium settles downward). Variable deep-Earth energy production may have important, not yet appreciated, implications on geomagnetic field variability and on planetary change [Herndon, J. M. (1993) Feasibility of a nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth as the energy source for the geomagnetic field. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 45, 423-437 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (1994) Planetary and protostellar nuclear fission: Implications for planetary change, stellar ignition and dark matter. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A455, 453-461 (click here for pdf)].

= Georeactor as the source of deep-Earth helium observed in oceanic basalt = click here for more information

Daniel F. Hollenbach and J. Marvin Herndon demonstrated, from numerical simulations made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, that a deep-Earth nuclear fission reactor will produce both light-helium, He-3, and heavy-helium, He-4, precisely within the range of values observed from deep-source lavas. The helium found in oceanic lavas, first observed over three decades ago, is evidence that a planetary-scale, natural nuclear fission reactor operates at the center of the Earth [Hollenbach, D. F. and Herndon, J. M. (2001) Deep-earth reactor: nuclear fission, helium, and the geomagnetic field. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 98, 11085-11090 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2003) Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100, 3047-3050 (click here for pdf)].

= Helium evidence of eventual georeactor demise = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon demonstrated, from numerical simulations made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, that a deep-Earth nuclear fission reactor, the georeactor, will produce sufficient helium with precisely the range of ratios as observed from deep-source oceanic basalt lavas. Moreover, the ratio of He-3 to He-4 increases over the lifetime of the georeactor. The high ratios observed in Icelandic and Hawaiian basalts suggest that the end of the georeactor lifetime is approaching, perhaps within the next billion years, perhaps much sooner; the time-frame is not yet known. Presumably, soon thereafter the geomagnetic field will begin its final collapse [Herndon, J. M. (2003) Nuclear georeactor origin of oceanic basalt 3He/4He, evidence, and implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 100, 3047-3050 (click here for pdf)].

= Origin of the geomagnetic field = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon set forth a fundamentally new concept related to the generation of Earth's geomagnetic field. Previously, he had considered the nuclear reactor at the center of the Earth, the georeactor, only as the energy source for the dynamo mechanism which generates the geomagnetic field that is thought to arise from convective motions of an electrically conducting fluid in a rotating body. Since 1939, the operant fluid has been thought to be the Earth’s fluid iron-alloy core. He suggested instead that the operant fluid may be contained within the georeactor as the fluid fission product and radioactive decay product sub-shell surrounding the actinide sub-core. He thus extended the georeactor concept by suggesting that the georeactor is both the energy source and the dynamo mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field. He pointed out the reasons why long-term, sustained convection appears more feasible within the georeactor sub-shell than within the Earth's fluid core [Herndon, J. M. (2007) Nuclear georeactor generation of the earth's geomagnetic field. Current Science, 93, 1485-1457 (click here for pdf)].

= Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection = click here for more information
Since 1939 convection has been assumed to occur in the Earth's fluid core. J. Marvin Herndon realized that, because of compression, the matter at the base of the fluid core is too dense to float to the top as a result of thermal expansion. Moreover, heat loss from the top of the core is inhibited as the core is wrapped in a thermally insulating blanket, the mantle. Thermal convection under those circumstances is physically impossible. Herndon also discovered that the Rayleigh Number, often used to justify convection, is inappropriate for both the core and the mantle, as the Rayleigh Number was derived for an incompressible fluid, a fluid of constant density except as modified by thermal expansion at the bottom. [Herndon, J. M. (2009) Uniqueness of Herndon's georeactor: Energy source and production mechanism for Earth's magnetic field. arXiv:0903.4622 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2011) Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. Current Science, 101, 1440-1450. (click here for pdf)]. 
= Earth formation by raining-out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet = click here for more information

From observations of matter, J. Marvin Herndon deduced the basis and reasons for understanding planetary formation in the Solar System mainly as the consequence of "raining out" from within giant gaseous protoplanets, leading to initial Earth formation as a gas giant Jupiter-like planet, a concept consistent with observations of close-to-star gas giant exoplanets in other planetary systems [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Solar System processes underlying planetary formation, geodynamics, and the georeactor. Earth, Moon and Planets, 99, 53-99 (click here for pdf)].

= New Indivisible Geoscience Paradigm = click here for more information
From our planet's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant, J. Marvin Herndon has deduced: (1) Earth's internal composition and highly-reduced oxidation state; (2) Powerful new internal energy sources, protoplanetary energy of compression and georeactor nuclear fission energy; (3) Georeactor geomagnetic field generation; (4) Decompression-driven geodynamics that accounts for the myriad observations attributed to plate tectonics without requiring mantle convection, and; (5) Fold-mountain formation that does not necessarily involve plate collisions. [J. M. Herndon (2011) New Indivisible Geoscience Paradigm. arXiv:1107.2149 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2011) Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. Current Science, 101, 1440-1450. (click here for pdf)].
= Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon set forth the principles of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics which unifies elements of plate tectonics theory and Earth expansion theory into a uniquely new self-consistent vision of global geodynamics, obviating the assumption of mantle convection [Herndon, J. M. (2005) Whole-Earth decompression dynamics. Current Science, 89, 1937-1941 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2004) Protoplanetary Earth formation: further evidence and geophysical implications. arXiv:astro-ph/0408539 (click here for pdf)]. Herndon described, as one of the consequences of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics, an unrecognized, different energy source for driving geodynamics, the stored energy of protoplanetary compression augmented by georeactor nuclear fission energy, and proposed a new mechanism for transporting heat within the Earth, called Mantle Decompression Thermal-Tsunami, which emplaces heat and pressure at the base of the crust, producing volcanoes and causing earthquakes [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Energy for geodynamics: Mantle decompression thermal-tsunami. Current Science, 90, 1605-1606 (click here for pdf)].

= Origin of Mountains and Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons = click here for more information
From our planet's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant and resulting changes in surface curvature, J. Marvin Herndon has deduced a new concept for the formation of mountains characterized by folding that does not necessarily require continent collisions. [J. M. Herndon (2012) Origin of mountains and primary initiation of submarine canyons: the consequences of Earth's early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant. Current Science, 102, 1370-1372. (click here for pdf)].
= Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles = click here for more information
Descriptions of phenomena, events, or processes made on the basis of problematic paradigms can be unreasonably complex (e.g. epicycles) or simply wrong (e.g. ultraviolet catastrophe). Supercontinent cycles, also called Wilson cycles, are, as J. Marvin Herndon asserts, artificial constructs, like epicycles. Herndon provides the basis for that assertion and describes published considerations from a fundamentally different, new, indivisible geoscience paradigm which obviate the necessity for assuming supercontinent cycles. [J. Marvin Herndon (2012) Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles, arXiv: 1302.1425. (click here for pdf)].
= Earth core precipitates at core-mantle-boundary = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon predicted low-density, high-temperature Earth core precipitates [CaS and MgS] floating atop the fluid core at the core-mantle boundary. These are an expected consequence of the enstatite-chondrite-alloy-like core, originally containing some calcium and some magnesium dissolved in the iron alloy and are responsible for the seismic "roughness" observed there [Herndon, J. M. (1993) Feasibility of a nuclear fission reactor at the center of the Earth as the energy source for the geomagnetic field. Journal of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity, 45, 423-437 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (1996) Sub-structure of the inner core of the earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 93, 646-648 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2005) Scientific basis of knowledge on Earth's composition. Current Science, 88, 1034-1037 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2011) Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. Current Science, 101, 1440-1450. (click here for pdf)].

= Physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection = click here for more information

Since the 1931 convection has been assumed to occur in the Earth's mantle. J. Marvin Herndon has discovered that, because of compression, the matter the base of the mantle is too dense to float to the top as a result of thermal expansion. The mantle is not devoid of viscous losses, as evidenced by earthquakes to depths of 660 km. Convection is physically impossible under those circumstances. Herndon also discovered that the Rayleigh Number, often used to justify convection, is inappropriate for the mantle, as the Rayleigh Number was derived for an incompressible fluid, a fluid of constant density. [Herndon, J. M. (2009) Uniqueness of Herndon's georeactor: Energy source and production mechanism for Earth's magnetic field. arXiv:0903.4622 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2011) Geodynamic basis of heat transport in the Earth. Current Science, 101, 1440-1450. (click here for pdf)]. 

= Enhanced prognosis for abiotic natural gas and petroleum =

J. Marvin Herndon pointed out that the prognosis for vast natural resources from abiotic natural gas and petroleum resources, which depends critically on the nature and circumstances of Earth formation, has for decades been considered solely within the framework of the now-discredited, 'standard model of solar system formation'. Within the context of recent advances related to the formation of Earth, initially as a Jupiter-like gas giant, that prognosis is greatly enhanced for several reasons [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Enhanced prognosis for abiotic natural gas and petroleum resources. Current Science, 91, 596-598 (click here for pdf)].

= Geological basis for petroleum and natural gas deposits = click here for more information

The geology of planet Earth according to Herndon's Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics (WEDD) is primarily the consequence of two processes: (1) The progressive formation of surface cracks to increase surface area in response to decompression-increased planetary volume, and; (2) The progressive adjustment of surface curvature in response to decompression-increased planetary volume. Crustal fragmentation, called rifting, provides all of the crucial components for petroleum-deposit formation: basin, reservoir, source, and seal. Rifting causes the formation of deep basins, as presently occurring in the Afar triangle of Northeastern Africa. Augmented by georeactor heat channeled upwards from deep within the Earth, uplift from sub-surface swelling can sequester sea-flooded lands to form halite evaporite deposits, can lead to dome formation, and can make elevated land susceptible to erosion processes, thus providing sedimentary material for reservoir rock in-filling of basins. Moreover, crustal fragmentation potentially exposes deep basins to sources of abiotic mantle methane and, although still controversial, methane-derived hydrocarbons..[Herndon, J. M. (2010) Impact of recent discoveries on petroleum and natural gas exploration: emphasis on India. Current Science, 98, 772-779 (click here for pdf)].

= Potentially Significant Source of Error in Magnetic Paleolatitude Determinations =
Magnetic paleolatitude measurements, as J. Marvin Herndon has shown, may be subject significant errors if the magnetization was emplaced when the Earth's radius was smaller than at present. Moreover, paleo-pole calculations are meaningless for such a circumstance [J. M. Herndon (2011) Potentially significant source of error in magnetic paleolatitude determinations. Current Science, 101, 277-278. (click here for pdf)].
= Origin of planetary magnetic fields =

Currently active internally generated magnetic fields have been detected in six planets (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and in one satellite, Jupiter’s moon Ganymede. Magnetized surface areas of Mars and the Moon indicate the former existence of internally generated magnetic fields in those bodies. Based upon the commonality of matter in the Solar System and common operating environments, J. Marvin Herndon suggested that planetary and satellite magnetic fields arise from the same georeactor-type assemblage which he suggested powers and provides the operant fluid for generating by dynamo action the Earth’s magnetic field [Herndon, J. M. (2009) Nature of Planetary Matter and Magnetic Field Generation in the Solar System. Current Science, 96, 1033-1039. (click here for pdf)].

= Elucidation of planetary formation processes = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon showed that only three processes, operant during the formation of the Solar System, are responsible for the diversity of matter in the Solar System and are directly responsible for planetary internal-structures, including planetocentric nuclear fission reactors, and for dynamical processes, including and especially, geodynamics [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Solar System processes underlying planetary formation, geodynamics, and the georeactor. Earth, Moon and Planets, 99, 53-99 (click here for pdf)].

= Nuclear fission reactors as energy sources for gas giant planets = click here for more information

With knowledge of the ancient remains of the natural nuclear reactors discovered at Oklo in the Republic of Gabon in Africa in 1972, J. Marvin Herndon demonstrated the feasibility of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors as energy sources for the gas giant outer planets [Herndon, J. M. (1992) Nuclear fission reactors as energy sources for the giant outer planets. Naturwissenschaften 79, 7-14].

= Origin of ordinary chondrite meteorites = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon discovered a fundamental relationship using published whole-rock chondrite molar Mg/Fe and Si/Fe ratios. This relationship admits the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components: one is a relatively undifferentiated, primitive component, oxidized like the CI or C1 carbonaceous chondrites; the other is a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites. Such a picture would seem to explain for the ordinary chondrites, their major element compositions, their intermediate states of oxidation, and their ubiquitous deficiencies of refractory siderophile elements. Herndon suggested that the planetary component of ordinary chondrite formation consists of planet Mercury’s missing complement of elements [Herndon, J. M. (2004) Ordinary chondrite formation from two components: Implied connection to planet Mercury. arXiv:astro-ph/0405298 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2004) Mercury's protoplanetary mass. arXiv:astro-ph/0410009 (click here for pdf) ; Herndon, J. M. (2004) Total mass of ordinary chondrite material originally present in the Solar System. arXiv:astro-ph/0410242 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2007) Discovery of fundamental mass ratio relationships of whole-rock chondritic major elements: Implications on ordinary chondrite formation and on planet Mercury's composition. Current Science, 93, 394-399 (click here for pdf)].

= Hydrogen Geysers Explanation for Recent Volatile Activity on Mercury = click here for more information
J. Marvin Herndon showed that Mercury's origin by condensing at high pressures and high temperatures would lead to incorporation of vast quantities of hydrogen in Mercury's core which would be released upon solidification producing the observed pits and reducing an iron compound to iron metal yielding the highly-reflective material observed. [J. M. Herndon (2012) Hydrogen Geysers: Explanation for observed evidence of geologically recent volatile-related activity on Mercury's surface. Current Science, 103, 361-362. (click here for pdf)]
Important Scientific Discoveries and Insights in Astronomical Science
= Stellar ignition by nuclear fission = click here for more information

Thermonuclear fusion reactions, thought to power the Sun and other stars, require temperatures on the order of one million degrees Celsius for ignition. Since the mid-1930s the assumption has been that such temperatures were obtained during the in-fall of dust and gas during star formation, but there are problems. In 1994, J. Marvin Herndon suggested that stellar fusion reactions may, in fact, be ignited by a central fission reactor in the same manner that a fusion bomb is triggered by a fission bomb. Rather than stars automatically igniting during formation, non-ignition may occur in absence of actinide elements, leading to the possibility of dark stars, dark matter, particularly surrounding luminous galaxies [Herndon, J. M. (1994) Planetary and protostellar nuclear fission: Implications for planetary change, stellar ignition and dark matter. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, A455, 453-461 (click here for pdf)].

= Origin of diverse luminous galaxy structures = click here for more information

J. Marvin Herndon has suggested that the diverse luminous galaxy structures can be understood in a logical and causally related manner if heavy element synthesis is related to galactic jets which jet heavy nuclear matter from the galactic core into the galaxy of dark stars where it seeds the dark stars it encounters with fissionable elements turning dark stars into luminous stars [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Thermonuclear ignition of dark galaxies. arXiv:astro-ph/0604307 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2008) Maverick’s Earth and Universe, Vancouver:Trafford Press, ISBN: 978-1-4251-4132-5]; Herndon, J. M., (2009) New concept for internal heat production in hot Jupiter exo-planets, thermonuclear ignition of dark galaxies, and the basis for galactic luminous star distributions. Current Science, 96, 1453-1456 (click here for pdf)].

= Planetary interfacial thermonuclear fusion =

J. Marvin Herndon has suggested that hot Jupiter exoplanets, which have densities less than Jupiter, may derive much of their internal heat production from interfacial thermonuclear fusion ignited by nuclear fission [Herndon, J. M. (2006) New concept for internal heat production in hot Jupiter exoplanets. arXiv:astro-ph/0612603 (click here for pdf); Herndon, J. M. (2008) Maverick’s Earth and Universe, Vancouver:Trafford Press, ISBN: 978-1-4251-4132-5; Herndon, J. M., (2009) New concept for internal heat production in hot Jupiter exo-planets, thermonuclear ignition of dark galaxies, and the basis for galactic luminous star distributions. Current Science, 96, 1453-1456 (click here for pdf)].

= Evidence against planetary migration =

J. Marvin Herndon has presented evidence against the astrophysical concept of planetary migration based upon evidence that Earth was at one time a close-to-Sun gas giant similar to Jupiter in mass and composition [Herndon, J. M. (2006) Evidence contrary to the existing exoplanet migration concept. arXiv:astro-ph/0612726 (click here for pdf)].

Representative Technological Experience

Participated in nuclear reactor based experiments involving epithermal neutron irradiation of uranium and plutonium isotopes. Conducted cyclotron based spallation experiments using proton and deuteron beams. Conducted radiochemical procedures as well as thermal neutron and delayed neutron activation analysis. Managed an open pit, heap leach, precious metals mine. Designed and constructed a carbon adsorption mill and stripping system. Directed operations, made technological improvements and conducted proof of performance documentation for a tank leach mill system. Conducted metallurgical research aimed at improving the physical properties of nickel silicide. Synthesized alloys using radio frequency induction heating and performed annealing experiments. Designed and constructed a 50,000 watt radio frequency amplifier for specialized purpose induction heating. Participated in the investigation of laser-produced evaporation and condensation of matter. Predicted by thermodynamic calculations the compounds that would condense from a cooling gas. Developed a theoretical technique for assessing inconsistencies in thermodynamic data. Measured natural remnant magnetization in meteorites involving both alternating field demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. Employed a Curie balance equipped with a furnace and a gas-mixing apparatus to analyze magnetic phases and to conduct oxidation-reduction experiments on magnetic components. Made theoretical computer model calculations based on the diffusion heat in solid heat-producing matter. Measured experimentally heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Experienced with a board range of analytical techniques, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, neutron and delayed-neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and fire assay. Conducted laboratory experiments to develop the technology for a metallurgical beneficiation process based on magnetizing gold particles using iron pentacarbonyl, an organo-metallic compound. Designed a pilot plant based on that technology and directed its construction and operation. Experienced in all phases of technological management and administration.

Sharing Knowledge and Understanding
= Google Knols by J. Marvin Herndon=
American Science Decline: The Cause and Cure
American Education’s Failure: The Cause and Cure
Understanding Galaxies and Galactic Structures
Origin of the Earth’s Magnetic Field
Structure and Composition of the Earth
Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics
Thermonuclear Ignition of Stars
Natural Planetary Nuclear Fission Reactors
= YouTube Videos by J. Marvin Herndon =
Origin of Earth’s Magnetic Field
The Origin of Galaxies
Lighting the Stars
No Mantle Convection!!!
21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 1
21st Century Earth Dynamics Part 2
Put Teachers on Top
= Educational Website =
http://UnderstandEarth.com
= eBooks =
Indivisible Earth: Consequences of Earth’s Early Formation as a Jupiter-like Gas Giant, Edited by Lynn Margulis. Thinker Media, Inc.
Origin of the Geomagnetic Field: Consequence of Earth’s Early Formation as a Jupiter-like Gas Giant, Thinker Media, Inc.
Beyond Plate Tectonics: Consequence of Earth’s Early Formation as a Jupiter-like Gas Giant, Thinker Media, Inc.
What Meteorites Tell Us About Earth, Thinker Media, Inc.
NASA's Science: A Betrayal of Trust, Thinker Media, Inc.

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